Max Weber, with his bureaucratic conception of administration, was a great contributor to the development of classical theory, he argued, that a well-defined hierarchy with written and precise concepts, rules, norms, and procedures contributed to the development and performance of the organization. His managerial style and administrative technique were based on centralization and authoritarianism. He also suggested that the only way for an organization to survive in the long term was under strong regulations.
Another of his criteria expressed that performance evaluations should be performed on the merits of workers.
This theory has the following characteristics:
- The criteria formulated should be based on the fourteen principles stated, which according to this theory can be taught.
- Charges are the essential elements of the bureaucratic administrative aspect.
- Its basis is governed by regulations, rules, and written procedures.
- Grouping of the activities to be carried out in the six planned parts.
- Superior effectiveness and efficiency are guaranteed through a strictly defined hierarchical authority.
Focus on human relationships
With the classical school it was concluded that the human being was motivated by his economic needs, an issue that was refuted by some of the students of the subject, so he has continued working on the search for more updated criteria and at the same time taking into account other aspects, also obtaining other important conclusions.
One of the interpretations that were made about the investigations was that the workers improved their performance because of the attention they had been given when carrying out the study, this fact was called the “Hawthorne Effect”.
This approach or movement of human relations posed another version that consisted in the fact that man was motivated by his social needs and that the compulsion of the group was an important factor as well.
School of Administrative Sciences
It consists of the creation of multidisciplinary teams, especially in mathematics, physics, and other disciplines, which were called operations research teams (IO), which were used in the presentation, to managers and heads of organizations, of troubleshooting.
Subsequently, with the appearance of computers, other possibilities appeared that allowed to deepen and expand the number of variables, as well as improve the results of the solutions, being able to create models that simulated more accurately the real situation, changing the variables themselves or their values and lighten the time of realization by the speed of calculation of the equipment.
Of great repercussion and interest is the systems approach, which points out and expresses the organization as a system formed by various interrelated and interdependent subsystems, so it does not value it in parts but as a whole in an integral way, taking into account not only the internal aspect but also the environment of the organization.
The systems approach is characterized and defined within the administration as a system formed by its parts that interact with each other, affecting their variations to all others, not always in the same way and magnitude.
Based on observations made by students of the subject, researchers, bosses, and administrators, where similar events were applied in multiple events similar to those already used and the results obtained were not as expected.
The aforementioned was explained by the change of situation in the conditions of the environment, so before using a theory or approach, the environment should be taken into account based on the changes that originate in it and seek changes in the environment. Organizational development process.
Human resources approach
The second half of the last century was characterized by the great variety of research and experiments carried out on various aspects of great influence in the successful development of human resources management and other organizational processes.
In this approach, the relationship between bosses and workers requires a depth and complexity that allows for the greater interrelation between both parties, with the objective that high levels of performance can be achieved by workers through the deployment of their knowledge, their initiative, and their creativity.
Mintzberg described this activity as contact from external sources that provide information to the administrator. These sources are individuals or groups outside the administrator unit and can be found inside or outside the organization. The sales manager who obtains information from the personnel manager in the same company has an internal liaison relationship.
All administrators, to a certain degree, receive and capture information from organizations outside theirs. Typically, these are done by reading magazines and talking with other people to know the changes in the tastes of the public, which may be planning competitors and similar things. This is what Mintzberg called the monitoring or surveillance role. The administrators also act as a conduit to transmit information to the members of the organization. This is the role of disseminator. When they represent the organization against strangers, the administrators also play the role of spokespersons.
Finally, Mintzberg identified four roles that revolve around decision making. As entrepreneurs, administrators initiate and supervise new projects that will improve the performance of their organization. As riot handlers, they take corrective actions.